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How the Blockchain Can Prevent Drug Counterfeiting in Kenya

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Drug Counterfeiting Kenya

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines a counterfeit medicine as “one which is deliberately and fraudulently mislabelled with respect to its identity and/or source. Counterfeiting can apply to both branded and generic products and counterfeit products may include products with the correct or wrong ingredients, without active ingredients, with insufficient active ingredients or with fake packaging.”

The port of Mombasa has been a point of entry for counterfeit drugs in Kenya and the East African region. According to a report by the Daily Nation, “the value of potentially dangerous pharmaceutical products sourced mainly from China and India is estimated at six billion Kenyan shillings.” The most commonly counterfeited drugs are antimalarials, morning-after pills, antihistamines, cough syrups, antibiotics, and viagra.

Counterfeit drugs are not only a health risk to patients but also increase the cost of getting better. According to IBM, over 122,000 children under the age of five in Africa die because of counterfeit anti-malarial drugs. Therefore, the IBM lab in Haifa, Israel is researching the use of the blockchain in preventing counterfeit drugs.

How the Blockchain Can Be Applied in the Pharma Supply Chain

The blockchain is a decentralised digital ledger that records and transfers data in a fast, secure, and transparent manner. When applied in the pharmaceutical supply chain, the blockchain tracks the drugs at each stage from the pharmaceutical company to the patient.

The IBM research solution involves a permissioned blockchain and a mobile interface. Every party on the network is certified and authorised to initiate an action and complete, track, and verify their transactions. Here is a breakdown of the different functions that the blockchain offers:

Trust: the blockchain comprises of a trusted network of pharmaceutical companies, delivery carriers, chemists, hospitals, and clinics. For example, the pharmaceutical companies on the blockchain are trustworthy and offer authentic drugs. Therefore, any person ordering drugs on the blockchain-based network is assured of getting industry-approved products.

Registration: every order that is made is registered on the blockchain for easy tracking and tracing.

Authentication: at each stage of the supply chain, a party’s’ identity is authenticated using the blockchain to enable him/her to carry out a transaction.

Verification: when drugs are being transferred from one party to the other, verification is important. That is to say that the blockchain will verify that a carrier has received the delivery from a pharmaceutical company by confirming that they are in the same location. Verification is also done by scanning the QR codes and the serial numbers of the drugs.

Recording: every transaction that takes place is recorded on the blockchain ledger. A record is taken when, for instance, the clinic accepts the delivery transfer from the carrier. In addition, the recording process ensures that the pharmaceutical company can check the delivery status of the daily orders made.

Ratings: ratings are given to carriers and pharmaceutical companies depending on their ability to deliver quality services and products to hospitals and clinics. Consequently, every party on the network will strive for high ratings in order to increase their chances of getting more business.

Tracking: the clinic or hospital that has made the order receives a tracking code to their phone via SMS to enable easy tracking of the delivery to their doorstep.

The Benefits of a Blockchain-based Pharma Supply Chain

Reduced health risks

The blockchain brings together a network of certified parties. That means that drugs are sourced from legitimate pharmaceutical companies that manufacture drugs according to industry standards. As a result, patients stay safe because the drugs they consume are also safe.

Decreased costs

Counterfeit drugs increase costs because they lack the active ingredient needed to cure diseases. However, authentic drugs work as they should hence curing patients within the expected time period.

Faster orders

The blockchain makes the process of finding trustworthy pharmaceuticals easy and fast. Additionally, a pharmaceutical company can view on the blockchain which carriers are available to make deliveries immediately.

Increased transparency

At each stage of the supply chain, parties authenticate using the blockchain and the drugs are verified through QR codes and serial numbers. In addition, every transaction is recorded on the blockchain and it can be traced and tracked. Therefore, the possibility of getting a different package from what was registered on the blockchain by the pharmaceutical is effectively non-existent.

The war against counterfeit drugs in Kenya might seem difficult but with the implementation of the blockchain in the pharmaceutical supply chain, it can be won. In a sector where it is difficult to know who you can trust and who you cannot, the blockchain creates trust.

Blockchain Technology

Blockchain Game Gods Unchained Secures New Game Director and Introduces Debit Card Payments

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Blockchain Game Gods Unchained
Image by godsunchained.com

Blockchain card game Gods Unchained has added Magic: The Gathering Arena Game Director Chris Clay to its team and introduced debit card payments. These two decisions aim to drive the game closer to mainstream appeal.

Experience and Achievements

Clay’s experience of more than 20 years in design and game development will be valuable to his new position as game director at Gods Unchained. His task entails prioritising visual designs, new features, and supporting community experience.

In his previous role at MTG Arena, Clay brought on-board three million active players and more than one billion games were played. According to a report by Dot Esports, MTGA – a digital collectible free-to-play card game published by Wizards of the Coast – grossed around $225 million.

Currently, Gods Unchained is the top-selling blockchain game of the year and with Clay’s help, the game could reach greater heights and attract traditional players.

“I believe blockchain represents a new frontier for game developers. Digital asset ownership on the blockchain lets developers support games and their communities in ways we have never seen before in electronic gaming. […] Blockchain is not just for digital currency; it is laying the foundation for a whole new digital economy,” Clay explained.

Game Payments

As an Ethereum-based esports game, Gods Unchained has been allowing its community to purchase booster packs using ether. Users now have an alternative payments option of debit cards. This move could help the game to reach a wider audience by appealing to traditional players.

“To date, blockchain games have provided a niche group of individuals a fun and experimental game ecosystem of NFTs. But now is the time for mainstream adoption. We need these games to show value, and we do not want ‘blockchain’ to sit as just another buzzword. Gods Unchained will become a game that any person can play, regardless of their blockchain familiarity. And the fun of the game will not be predicated on the underlying tech,” stated Gods Unchained co-founder Robbie Ferguson.

In a press release, Gods Unchained announced the rebranding of Fuel Games to Immutable. Immutable is the creator behind Gods Unchained.

Last month, Gods Unchained launched its beta version enabling more players to experience blockchain-based gaming. The game also debuted its gameplay trailer in 2018.

If you are into blockchain gaming, check out our guide to the best blockchain games in 2019.

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Kenya’s Blockchain Taskforce Releases DLT Implementation Strategy for Kenya

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Kenya Blockchain Report

Kenya’s Blockchain and AI Taskforce released its first report to the public since the ICT Cabinet Secretary Joe Mucheru launched the body in 2018. The report depicts an implementation strategy for the adoption of these two emerging technologies that will steer Kenya to the fourth industrial revolution.

Implementation Strategy

Kenya Blockchain ReportThe report, titled Emerging Technologies for Kenya: Exploration & Analysis, has stipulated an implementation strategy based on blockchain technology and AI that will solve challenges such as financial exclusion, corruption, high public debt, inefficient public service delivery, food insecurity, and high transaction costs.

Furthermore, the report will guide the government in attaining the Big Four Agenda, which encompasses affordable housing, food security, manufacturing, and healthcare.

The Chairman of the taskforce, Bitange Ndemo stated: “I am confident that this report will guide policymakers in their efforts to stimulate an efficient and resilient economy with respect to the digital transformational technologies, especially with the realisation of the Big Four Agenda.”

Some of the implementation strategies are as follows:

  • Digital Asset Framework

The Blockchain and AI Taskforce has proposed a digital asset framework that will guide companies wishing to list a cryptocurrency on an exchange. According to the report, the Capital Markets Authority (CMA) is looking into how to regulate initial coin offerings (ICOs) by using the authority’s legal framework and the forthcoming regulatory sandbox.

The digital asset framework is meant to help small and medium-sized enterprises that are unable to raise capital through IPOs to have the alternative of using token sales.

  • Digital Currency

The taskforce had earlier announced its proposal for a Central Bank Digital Currency (CBDC), which would facilitate financial inclusion and low-cost transactions.

With 90 percent of Kenyans already using mobile money, credit cards, and bank transfers to make transactions, adding a CBDC to the existing digital economy could be a seamless process.

To introduce a digital currency in Kenya, the taskforce acknowledges that the country first requires a regulatory sandbox and the tokenisation of government fiscal operations.

  • Tokenisation

Another proposed strategy is the tokenisation of the economy which could help to solve unemployment issues. The unemployment rate in Kenya is one of the highest in the world and the taskforce envisions a platform where work is exchanged for tokens to tackle this issue. Service providers will use the platform to build a work marketplace, store data, and manage transactions.

The Ajira Program, an initiative created to enable more Kenyans to work online, will adopt this proposed strategy. Using the Ethereum platform, Ajira will offer inter-person and inter-service settlements and payments. The initial stage of creating the Ajira platform is ongoing. A flagship service called Ajira Machine Learning (AML) is currently running on this platform. The AI-based service links crowd workers to digital tasks.

AML offers human language interfaces in African languages and pays people for teaching the AI to translate these languages.

The Chairman of the blockchain taskforce, Bitange Ndemo, had mentioned in an interview with BitcoinAfrica.io the need to tokenise Kenya’s economy. In addition, he had observed the importance of helping Kenyans to understand this process.

Target Implementation Areas

blockchainSome of the target implementation areas for blockchain and AI include the Ministry of Lands, Huduma Centres where important documents are issued, and the Ministry of Transport.

In the Ministry of Lands, illegally duplicated title deeds are a common issue. With blockchain technology, the land titling process will become transparent and secure.

Moreover, the blockchain will enable Kenya to build an efficient public service delivery system where digitised documents are sharable between various government offices and where Kenyans can trace the payments they make for services.

The Ministry of Transport can build a public transport model based on a sharing economy. This model is then built on a blockchain to ensure that all relevant stakeholders in the transport sector are part-owners and that everyone benefits.

“The Organisation would determine which participants would form part of the networked nodes that would run the validation software as well as the consensus mechanism. Typically, the network of participating nodes would include stakeholders with specific roles and mandates within the ministry and across the transport sector,” the report reads.

The taskforce believes that the proposed strategies and solutions in this report will propel Kenya’s economic development. Additionally, the ICT CS Joe Mucheru illustrates his commitment to have the entire contents of the report executed and to gain the backing of all stakeholders in making these recommendations a reality.

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Blockchain Technology

Pundi X Unveils New Blockchain Phone ‘XPhone’ in Kigali

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xphone

Singapore-based company Pundi X recently unveiled its blockchain phone, called XPhone, at the GSMA Mobile 360 Africa event in Kigali, Rwanda.

The XPhone

The XPhone features a blockchain-based operating system enabling users to make calls and send text messages without the need for a centralised service provider. This makes it the first phone that runs on a decentralised ecosystem while allowing users to make phone calls, send messages, and transmit data. Furthermore, users can switch between the blockchain mode, which is powered by Function X, and the Android mode.

“Telecommunications and Internet companies have derived tremendous value from controlling data. By decentralising apps, we can put this data onto a smart contract, effectively giving control back to creators and users. Much of what we call peer-to-peer or ‘decentralised’ services continue to be built upon centralised networks. We are changing that,” said Pundi X founder and CEO Zac Cheah.

PundiXAccording to Pundi X, each XPhone is “a node on the network contributing to the operation of the blockchain ecosystem. Content and connectivity are organised in a distributed, node-to-node manner.”

Pitt Huang, the co-founder and CTO of Pundi X, stated: “Scalability in blockchain is derived from the number and geographic spread of nodes. It is clear how achieving a critical mass in terms of scale will require something with a high utility for people. The XPhone, thus, has the potential to establish a large global pool of nodes.”

Pundi X aims to give back to users the control over how their data is used with Function X which keeps data secure and encrypted.

“Blockchain today is at a similar stage of development as the Internet in the early ’90s. Like the browser was to the Internet, a new kind of network and decentralised protocol like Function X will have a profound effect on blockchain, putting it in the hands of millions via a smartphone and returning control of their data to them,” Huang added.

Features

The XPhone will have a 5.65 inches screen, 6GB RAM and 128GB ROM, fingerprint sensor on the side, 16MP front camera, 48MP rear camera, 3500 mAH battery capacity, and the Qualcomm SnapdragonTM 660 Mobile Platform. The blockchain phone will retail for $599. These are, however, the minimum specifications. Both the design and specs can change.

The XPhone will also have an ‘X’ button on the side that enables users to easily access DApps when they are in blockchain mode.

“Blockchain-based calling and messaging is toggled on and off on the phone operating system, which builds upon Android 9.0,” the company explained.

Pundi X will produce and release 5,000 XPhones in late 2019. The company is open to partner with hardware and phone manufacturers that want to build their version of a blockchain phone powered by Function X.

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