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Could Blockchain-Powered Anarcho-Capitalism Thrive in Africa?

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Anarcho-Capitalism

Africa is home to some of the most corrupt governments in the world. According to the Transparency International Corruption Perception Index 2017, 11 out of the 20 most corrupt countries are located on the African continent. These nations are also among some of the worst performing countries when it comes to socio-economic development.

This data suggests that the state is at least partly responsible for many of the economic and social challenges faced by Africans today. This begs the question: “Would African nations fare better if they were not restrained by the state?”

In this article, we will explore a political school of thought called anarcho-capitalism, which promotes the replacement of the state with a free-market based system that empowers citizens through self-ownership and private property and whether blockchain-driven anarcho-capitalism could provide a viable alternative model for socio-economically struggling nations in Africa.

What is Anarcho-Capitalism?

Anarcho-Capitalism

Anarcho-capitalism, also referred to as libertarian anarchy or free-market anarchism, is a political philosophy that advocates the elimination of the centralised state in favour of individual sovereignty and free markets.

Anarcho-capitalists believe that in the absence of statute societies self-regulate through what is referred to as spontaneous order – an order which emerges as a result of the voluntary activities of individuals and not one that is created by a government.

In an anarcho-capitalist society, instead of having government-run public sector institutions such as law enforcement and courts that are funded by taxation, these services would be operated by privately-funded businesses who are chosen by consumers in the open market. This, in turn, should create a more efficient economy with better services.

Legal disputes would be resolved using tort and contract law through dispute resolution organisations as opposed to through punishment determined by political monopolies, which tend to become corrupted.

As opposed to the public image of anarchy, which often associates this political concept to chaos and lawlessness, anarcho-capitalism is based on the non-aggression principle (NAP). In simple terms, the non-aggression principle states that you should not assert aggression towards others or their property as this is deemed unethical.

Anarchism is also often linked to left-wing political schools of thought such as socialism and communism. However, while there is a large anarcho-communist community, not all anarchists are opposed to private ownership of property and free-market economics. In fact, the anarcho-capitalist movement has been growing in recent years in places like the United States and Europe due to the dissatisfaction with the performance of recent and current governments.

The term “anarcho-capitalism” was coined by Murray Rothbard, an American economist, historian and political theorist, in the 20th century. Rothbard believed that:

“Capitalism is the fullest expression of anarchism, and anarchism is the fullest expression of capitalism.”

Anarchism in Africa

Africa is not foreign to anarchist societies. Author Sam Mbah and I. E. Igariwey suggest in their book, ‘African Anarchism: The History of a Movement’, that many traditional African societies were built on anarchic elements and lacked state-like hierarchies.

“To a greater or lesser extent, all of […] traditional African societies manifested “anarchic elements” which, upon close examination, lend credence to the historical truism that governments have not always existed. They are but a recent phenomenon and are, therefore, not inevitable in human society. While some “anarchic” features of traditional African societies existed largely in past stages of development, some of them persist and remain pronounced to this day.”

“What this means is that the ideals underlying anarchism may not be so new in the African context. What is new is the concept of anarchism as a social movement or ideology. Anarchy as an abstraction may indeed be remote to Africans, but it is not at all unknown as a way of life. This is not fully appreciated because there is not as yet a systematic body of anarchist thought that is peculiarly African in origin,” the authors wrote.

How a Blockchain-Powered “Decentralised Economy” Could Disintermediate the State

The power of decentralised applications (DApps) and the new “decentralised economy” lies in the disintermediation of central authority. This does not only apply to businesses who act as intermediaries (such as financial institutions for financial transactions for example) but can also apply to public sector institutions.

Through the adoption of decentralised services, many centrally governed services that governments (aim to) provide could be largely replaced. The issuance of identities, business lending, asset and land ownership, startup funding, legally binding smart contracts, a direct peer-to-peer sharing economy, and decentralised digital currencies are among the possibilities that blockchain technology could provide to disintermediate many of the state’s functions.

anarcho-capitalismThe issuance of digital identities could be performed using a blockchain-powered database that does not require a centrally governed authority to oversee it. Instead, individuals could create their identities on the platform, and third parties who may require information on the individual could access it with the individual’s permission.

Business lending, as well as startup funding, which is often conducted through government grants or investment schemes, could be run by the private sector using blockchain solutions instead. Business lending, for example, could be performed on a peer-to-peer lending basis where investors lend to businesses directly without an intermediary taking a cut. Startup funding, on the other hand, could be conducted through initial coin offerings or security token offerings.

Asset and land ownership and transfers could be conducted on blockchain-based platforms for all stakeholders to view in a transparent and immutable manner. This way, there would be no need for public sector officials to become involved in the process and fees – and the potential for corruption – would thus be reduced.

Contractual agreements between businesses and individuals could be coded into immutable self-executing smart contracts, which would reduce the need for centrally-governed courtroom interventions in the matters between individuals and businesses. Moreover, the widespread adoption and societal implementation of smart contracts could drastically reduce the need for laws and bureaucratic legislation.

A true peer-to-peer sharing economy could also be created using blockchain technology, which could replace many public sector services with private sector solutions such as specialised healthcare or transport services, for example.

Furthermore, decentralised digital currencies such as bitcoin would eliminate the need for a central bank to meddle in the monetary affairs of a country and could empower citizens to “be their own bank” as opposed to relying on financial intermediaries to conduct their financial affairs.

Could Blockchain-Powered Anarcho-Capitalism Work in Africa?

It is difficult to know with any degree of certainty whether socio-economically struggling African nations would benefit from introducing blockchain-driven anarcho-capitalism as there have been little to no anarcho-capitalist societies to date.

According to freeblr, anarcho-capitalist societies have existed in the past, most notably in Celtic Ireland from 650 to 1650 and in the Icelandic Commonwealth from 930 to 1263. However, as these historical instances of anarcho-capitalism date back several hundred years it is difficult to determine whether these societies were truly 100 percent stateless and capitalist, and how well these societies functioned.

Anarcho-capitalism thus remains largely a political ideal and theoretical model that stands untested in modern history. This makes it difficult to judge whether an anarcho-capitalist society would flourish in countries that have suffered under corrupt governments.

In theory, however, anarcho-capitalism has the potential to create more wealth for a larger number of people in a society where it would be introduced. If you take away the state and its restrictive regulations, crony capitalism, and taxation, entrepreneurship and innovation could thrive while workers would be able to take home their entire paycheck as opposed to giving a share to their politicians.

The economy, in an anarcho-capitalist society, would become more efficient as private companies would have to compete to offer the best possible products and services that the consumer can then choose from. That would mean lower prices, higher quality products, and better services than in the current state of the economy.

Anarchy in AfricaInterestingly, one could argue that a high degree of economic and entrepreneurial freedom already exists in most African nations due to its thriving informal sectors that stay mostly untouched by government rules and regulations. Vendors in poor areas, for example, are often able to sell their goods wherever they please without government interference and taxation is only sporadically enforced in many African slums. This would suggest that anarcho-capitalism can be found in pockets of Africa’s society today.

The lack of effective state-led policing in many African nations would also feed into this argument as punishment for crimes is often enacted by local communities themselves as a form of self-governing, which could be considered as quasi-dispute resolution organisations.

In light of Africa’s experience with anarchy in many of its traditional societies, the lack of state-control in many of the poorer parts of the continent, and African citizens’ general distrust of governments and their institutions would suggest that the continent may be fertile ground for anarcho-capitalism. Through the widespread adoption of decentralised blockchain solutions, many of the government’s functions could be disintermediated and would thus become redundant, which would also feed into the argument that anarcho-capitalism could potential thrive in Africa.

Whether struggling African nations would be better off through the adoption of a free-market economy without government interference will remain unknown until the first libertarian society that embraces anarcho-capitalist ideals comes to fruition on African soil.

Unfortunately, due to corrupt government officials and the omnipresent corporate cronyism found all over Africa, it would be an uphill battle for the brave souls who attempt to create a free society based on the non-aggression principle, individual liberty, and personal financial sovereignty.

Blockchain Technology

eCampus Integrates Blockchain Technology in Its Latest Update

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eCampus

The eCampus app has integrated blockchain technology in order to allow students across Ghana to ascertain how prepared they are before taking an examination.

This latest update is designed to honour the memory of the past United Nation Secretary Kofi Annan and his positive involvement in the educational sector.

What is eCampus

The eCampus app is an education-focused mobile app, making use of blockchain technology, artificial intelligence, and machine learning to help students learn and prepare for upcoming exams. This is done using a rewarding, fun and responsive interface.

The lasted updates to the 3.0 version of the app include:

  • Blockchain Integration
  • Test Prep
  • Course Suggestions
  • Lab

Blockchain Integration

blockchainAccording to a blog post by eCampus, the blockchain Integration on the app makes it possible for app user to gain points from the general usage and interaction on the app. These points are expected to be exchangeable for service or products offered on the app.

Furthermore, certification can be generated using the points received on the app. The certificate is usually in form of a digital badge. This badge, in turn, can be used to secure employment outside the app.

Test Prep

The app makes it possible for a student to prepare for various national exams by letting them know how well prepared they are to take on such an exam. This is made possible using the test prep feature on the app. All that is required by the student is to select the type of test that intend to take and the app provides them with a test matching the examination.

Course Suggestion

For a student struggling with the choice of courses to undertake. The latest version of eCampus also possesses AI features, making it possible for it to suggest courses which are relevant to the students based on the profile of such student.

Labs (Beta)

This feature incorporates the use of virtual reality technology to help students explore numerous laboratory tests connected to their field of study.

eCampus version 3.0 is available on Google Play Store, Apple App Store, and Windows App Store.

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Block Commodities and Pure Grow Africa to Launch First Crypto Project for Ugandan Farmers

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crypto project for Ugandan farmers

Block Commodities, a commodity trader operating in Africa, has announced a partnership with Uganda-based Pure Grow Africa to launch the first crypto project for Ugandan farmers. 

The Pilot Ecosystem

Block Commodities Limited, a London NEX exchange-listed company whose objective is maximising value through the blockchain ecosystem, has announced a partnership with Pure Grow Africa Limited (Pure Grow), a leading supplier of high-quality agricultural products based in Uganda. Block Commodities and Pure Grow are working together to bring the first pilot of a food project commodity cycle ecosystem.  

UnbankedPure Grow Africa, started in 2015 and focuses on promoting communities to sustainable agri-business and agro-value chain development. It supports farms in Africa by embracing modern technologies and applications to promote economic growth as well as creating community awareness and shared values. Farmers who are with the company strive to keep to the highest standards of food safety, environmental and sustainable policies. To start, Pure Grow will introduce 1,000 farmers and buyers to the Pilot Ecosystem.

Block Commodities will implement and support the ecosystem by providing finance and fertiliser products, as well as supplying the technology.

It will also coordinate loans in cryptocurrency – in the form of Dala tokens – for the already selected team of farmers, according to a company press release. This loan will provide the farmers with cash to purchase fertilisers cheaply and with better repayment plans, which will then enable the farmers to increase the production as well as to scale up and become commercial.

The Food and Agribusiness

Pure Grow’s Director Bobby Juuko Kimbugwe, said: “We are placing smallholder farmers at the centre of our work; they are at the core of what we do. We want them to understand that they do not need to have money in their hands to be able to grow production. Block Commodities is the ideal partner to support growth in African farming.”

Chris Cleverly, Executive Chairman at Block Commodities added that he was delighted about the partnership and hopes to support small-scale farmers and advance the ecosystem.

According to the African Development Bank, the food and agribusiness market is estimated to reach a value of one trillion dollars by 2030. Therefore, highlighting the great opportunity for African agriculture to become a leading player in this market. 

If the pilot phase succeeds, Block Commodities and Pure Grow will introduce the scheme to 50,000 more Pure Grow farmers. Further plans for the project are to expand and cover other countries in sub-Saharan Africa in due time.

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Top Five EOS DApps

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EOS Dapps

Since the EOS blockchain went live in June 2018, a number of EOS DApps (decentralised applications) have been released.

A decentralised application (DApp) is an application that runs on a peer-to-peer network of nodes that confirm transactions and support the network without a central party exerting control over the application. In this article, we will look at five promising DApps that have already been launched or will launch on the EOS blockchain soon.

EOS is a third-generation high-performance blockchain, supporting over 4,000 transactions per second. This high throughput makes the EOS blockchain scalable and enables it to support millions of transactions with zero transaction fees.

Everpedia

EOS DApps

Everpedia – based on Wikipedia – is as an encyclopedia on the EOS blockchain. Already, it is the largest English encyclopedia in the world. The applications incentivises people to appreciate and share knowledge, just as easily as they would on Facebook through the EOS blockchain. 

To learn more about Everipedia, have a look at https://everipedia.org/

ONO

ONO is a decentralised social media application that rewards users for quality content. The platform also ensures through its ecosystem that its users have a secure space to share insights and highlights of their personal lives. The most important feature is that users own their data and ads are optional for viewing on the platform.

Read more about the ecosystem on https://www.ono.chat/en/

Unico

Unico will allow its users to digitise items in a bid to make them collectable and tradeable. This will be possible through the creation of a digital certificate and using “licensing-as-a-service”. To every item with a digital certificate, a set number of tokens will be issued to ensure the item’s rarity and value, and also to enable users to buy, sell and trade their collectables.

Find out more on https://www.unico.global/

Scatter

Scatter aggregates your logins so that as a user, you do not have to use multiple logins to the various EOS dApps. This is an offer of security, personal data ownership, and convenience, as no user has to keep track of the passwords they are using and they will be able to interact with different applications as per their consent.

Scatter will support various blockchain protocols for a robust ecosystem and best of all, all these features are available for free on https://get-scatter.com/

Carmel

Do you want to learn to develop applications on a blockchain, but do not have a background in Computer Science? Do you feel that you need more technical skill for your future career? Carmel is an ecosystem built to empower people with skills in coding without requiring them to have previous academic experience in Computer Science.

The platform will enable learners to build websites, mobile apps, and other applications essential to users in the blockchain ecosystem. https://carmel.io/

It will be exciting to see the change in reach and impact of some of these projects in the coming year as the EOS blockchain ecosystem continues to grow and more users adopt the network and its applications. 

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